MEDICAL Education in India

Becoming a doctor is a dream of millions of students in India. There isn’t any profession as respectful as a Doctor. However, many students aren’t aware of the complete process of becoming a doctor or a specialist. For same, the student needs hard work and dedication. It requires an undertaking to serve all forms of life with application of one’s knowledge, compassion and kindness. No other career is as satisfying as medical where you cure people suffering from illness, trauma, accidents, and disease. However, merely acquiring a degree isn’t enough as it is required to pick a branch in medicine and surgery to become a specialist. Several of the fields are – Pediatrics, Gynecology, Ophthalmology, Surgery, Neurosurgery and Cardiology. We have compiled this article for students interested in becoming a doctor or a specialist in India. This article is an overview of the complete process of the same.

Specializations in Different Streams of Medical Courses

Various courses are offered for specialization in life-sciences. A few of them are given here for you to have an idea:

Cardiology – deals with disorders of the heart. He performs specialized work like angioplasty, angiography, and by-pass surgery
Neurosurgery – a surgical discipline which deals with treating central and peripheral nervous system and spine disorders. It focuses on primarily brain, spinal cord and nerves. Medical specialists are called neurosurgeons
Orthopedics – these surgeons deal with disorders in skeletal structure. Further, fractures and disorders of the skeletal frame are undertaken. He performs therapies and suggests exercise for patients which are conducted by Physiotherapists
Ophthalmologists – they deal with human eye and its disorders. They are trained with surgeries of eyes, operation of cataract, glaucoma and other ailments
Psychiatry – he deals with psychiatry and other issues related to mind such as mental, emotional or behavioral disorders
Medicine – MBBS doctor who gains specializes in medicine and acquires an M.D. (Doctor of Medicine) degree is called a physician. His job is to comprehend patient’s problems, clinical test results, diagnosing the illness and then prescribing the treatment
Pediatrics – pediatrician deals with the children’s health from stages of newborn to adolescents. He diagnoses and performs treatment of the diseases of children
Obstetrics and Gynecology – Obstetricians and Gynecologists diagnose and treat the female reproductive disorders. They also perform operations like caesarian, laparoscopies and hysteroscopy. Further they deal with ovarian cancer and other illnesses related to reproductive systems
Stages of Medical Courses

There are basically three courses available for the interested candidates. It is not necessary to follow the hierarchy to become a specialist as one can pursue specialization course directly after pursuing the entrance examination.

Undergraduate Courses
Postgraduate Courses
Super Specialty Courses
Medical Governing Bodies

In India, we have four medical apex bodies which govern the medical professional and allied services. They function under the Government of India and comprises of separately affiliated medical associations.

Dental Council of India (DCI)
Pharmacy Council of India (PCI)
Medical Council of India (MCI)
National Board of Examination (NAT Board)
OVERVIEW OF COURSES

Undergraduate

B. D. S. (Bachelor of Dental Sciences)

Duration of this program is 4 years. 1 year is meant for compulsory rotating internship. Courses taught are -biochemistry, physiology, pharmacology, basic anatomy and microbiology. Candidates are exposed to dentistry and hands-on-practice in the final two semesters.

M. B. B. S. (Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery)

This programs spans over duration of 5 ½ years and divided into three professional of three semesters. Each semester lasts 18 months or 1 ½ year. Last year is dedicated to compulsory rotating internship. Subjects like anatomy, physiology, biochemistry, forensic medicine, microbiology, pathology, pharmacology, general medicine, surgery, ophthalmology, ENT (ear, nose, and throat), gynecology, orthopedics and preventive & social medicine are taught.

B. A. M. S. (Bachelor of Ayurvedic Medicine and Surgery)

Duration of this course is 5 ½ years. Ayurvedic Education in India is under monitoring by the Central Council of Indian Medicine (CCIM), which again, is a statutory central government body.

B. U. M. S. (Bachelor of Unani Medicine & Surgery)

This course deals with undergraduate degree in Unani Medicine & Surgery. Central Council of Indian Medicine (CCIM), a statutory government body manages the Unani education in India.

B. H. M. S. (Bachelor of Homoeopathic Medicine & Surgery)

This program is of 5 ½ years duration. It includes one year compulsory internship. National Institute of Homeopathy, a statutory central government body governs the Homoeopathic education in India.

B. V. Sc. & A. H. (Bachelor of Veterinary Sciences & Animal Husbandry)

Duration of this program is 5 ½ years. Undergraduate course is offered in Veterinary Science and Animal Husbandry. Veterinary Council of India manages the Veterinary education in India.

B. Sc. – Nursing (Bachelor of Science in Nursing)

Duration of this undergraduate course is 3 to 4 years. Specialization is done in operation theatre, cardiac care and surgery. Nursing Council of India governs the education in nursing in India.

B. Pharm. (Bachelor of Pharmacy)

This is a 4 year degree program in pharmacy. Professionals are prepared for pharmaceutical industry, which is a multimillion dollar industry. Monitoring work of pharmaceutical education is done by the Pharmacy Council of India.

B. P. T. (Bachelor of Physiotherapy)

Different medical colleges of the country offer undergraduate course in physiotherapy. Course offers learning of scientific procedures and bio-mechanics used to treat a patient with disability or disease or injury. It is to acquire and maintain motor functional rehabilitation. Program also deals with prevention of malfunction or deformity.

B. O. T. (Bachelor of Occupational Therapy)

This is a graduate degree course in occupational therapy which is offered by various medical institutes. Through this program, professional therapists are prepared whose area of operation is to deal with people suffering from physical or mental disabilities. They are helped to achieve maximum functioning and independence related to daily activities of the body.

B. M. L. T. (Bachelor of Medical Laboratory Technology)

Various medical institutes in the country offer B.Sc. programme in medical laboratory technology. Successful candidates are conferred with B.Sc.-M.L.T. degree. They are the professionals who deal with practical and technical work to aid correct diagnosis and in the functioning of Biochemical labs.

Postgraduate Courses

M.D. (Doctor of Medicine)

This is a three year course which offers postgraduate degree in medicine. Those doctors who possess M.B.B.S. degree are eligible for this course. It is a specialized program in general medicine. Candidates who complete the degree successfully are eligible to choose physician as career.

M.S. (Master of Surgery)

It is a 3 years course which offers postgraduate degree in surgery. Those doctors who are M.B.B.S. are eligible to for this course. Successful doctors can work as surgeon, either independently or under an institute.

Postgraduate Diploma

Various medical colleges or institutes offer postgraduate diploma program in medicine. MBBS degree holders are eligible for the program. Duration of the course is 2 to 3 years.

Super Specialty Courses

DM / MCh

It is a super specialty course with duration of 2 to 3 years. Candidate need to be an MD (Doctor of Medicine). While M.Ch is a 2 years super specialty program in surgery which requires candidate to be having MS (Master of Surgery).

General Procedure for Admissions to Undergraduate Courses

Various medical institutes in the country, both government and private follow norms of eligibility criteria as suggested by the respective university. General terms of eligibility are that a candidate wanting to take admission in a medical college must have passed Senior Secondary Examination of CBSE (Central Board of Secondary Education) or its equivalent with physics, chemistry, and biology as subjects. Almost all of the government medical colleges offer admissions to Indian candidates on the basis of their performance in the entrance examination. A very few medical colleges, run by government, admit candidates from NRI/Foreign quota.

Such candidates need to contact the respective institute/university directly for admission. Appropriate documents and certificates must be submitted at the time of counselling. Various state boards conduct entrance examinations for admission in medical colleges and hospitals on behalf of the state government. Some private colleges either consider national level examination scores or conduct their own examination for admission.

Stages of Admission

Education Qualification – Candidate must be passed in class XII or equivalent with physics, chemistry and biology from any recognized Indian board (CBSE, ICSE etc.).

Entrance Exam – Candidate has to appear in a written exam for admission in medical colleges and hospitals. A candidate may be asked to undergo an interview or personality test as well. Congregate score of the exam and interview will be implemented for final decision.

Exam Pattern – Candidates can check the exam pattern, syllabus and interview/personality test (if any) in the official information brochure. Candidates can either download it from the official website or buy it from sale centers.

Result – Merit list of successful candidates who are declared eligible for admission will be issued by the examination board.

Final Selection – Candidates will be called for counselling and option filling by the concerned authority. After being selected, candidate has to go to submit certificates, course fee, and physical tests.

Entry Requirements for Courses

Candidates who have passed class XII exam with physics, chemistry and biology (zoology & botany) will be eligible for admission in MBBS (Bachelor of Medicine & Bachelor of Surgery). Selection is done on the basis of all India competitive entrance examination or state level competitive entrance examination. All India Pre-Medical Test is conducted by Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE), New Delhi. State level examination is conducted by state entrance exam board.

Medical Entrance Examination

Admissions in medical colleges of the country (government and private) are made through entrance examination
Conducting body or organizations at national and state level will hold the examination
Purpose of examination is to select the most deserving candidates for admission
Courses are offered in diploma, degree, post-diploma, postgraduate degree and research level
On being chosen in the merit list, candidate can choose from a array of choices of colleges and courses
He will be allotted admission on the basis of merit list ranking, available seats, and choices filled
List of Important Medical Entrance Examinations

Annamalai University (AU) – Medical Entrance Exam
All India Pre-Veterinary Test (AIPVT)
Amrita Institute of Medical Sciences (AIMS) MBBS & BDS Entrance Test
Association of Management of Unaided Private Medical and Dental Colleges-(Asso-CET)
Banaras Hindu University-Pre Medical Test (BHU-PMT)
All India Pre Medical Test (AIPMT)
All India Institute of Medical Science (AIIMS)
Armed Forces Medical Core Entrance (AFMC)
Aligarh Muslim University (AMU)
Common Entrance Test (CET)-Jammu & Kashmir
Common Entrance Test (CET)-Karnataka
Common Entrance Test (CET), Punjab University
Delhi University Medical-Dental Entrance Test (DUMET)
Directorate of Medical Education and Research (DMER), Maharashtra
Bharati Vidyapeeth University (BVU-CET)
Combined Entrance Examination (CEE), Kerala
Consortium of Medical, Engineering and
Dental Colleges of Karnataka-(COMEDK)
CHRISTIAN MEDICAL COLLEGE(CMC), VELLORE
Engg., Agriculture & Medical Common Entrance Test (EAMCET)
medical education and research, Pondicherry (JIPMER)
Mahatma Gandhi Dental College and Hospital – BDS – Joint Entrance Test (JET)
Maharashtra Health Science & Technical Common Entrance Test (MHT-CET)
Maharashtra Super Speciality Entrance Test (MH-SSET)
Meenakshi Academy Of Higher Education And Research (MAHER)
PGMAT- Bihar Combined Entrance Competitive Examination Board
Pre Medical Test (PMT)-Haryana
Pre Medical Test media=””(PMT), Madhaya Pradesh
Pravara Institute of Medical Sciences -All India Common Entrance Test
Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education & Research, Chandigarh
Pre Medical Test (PMT), Rajasthan
PG Medical Entrance Test, Jammu& Kashmir
Punjab Medical Entrance Test (PMET) – Punjab
Uttaranchal Pre-Medical Test (UPMT)
Uttar Pradesh Combined Pre Medical Test (UPCPMT)
Uttar Pradesh Common Admission Test – Dental (UPCAT – Dental)
Undergraduate Admission Written Test (UG AWT)
UP Post Graduate Medical Entrance Examination (UPPGMEE)
Veterinary Council of India (VCI)
Gujarat Common Entrance Test (GUJCET)
Guru Gobind Singh Indraprastha University MBBS Entrance Test (GGSIPU-CET)
H.P. Combined Pre-Medical Entrance Test
Jawaharlal Institute of post-graduate
Masters in Medical Sciences Technology (MMST)
Mahatma Gandhi Institute of Medical Sciences Competitive Entrance Examination (MGIMS-CEE)
SRM Institute of Science and Technology

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How to Get Through the ADHD Medication Maze

Have you ever had to go a day or more without your prescription medication?
Do you know the physical discomfort and anxiousness of waiting to get the medication reordered?
Have you spent hours on the phone with the doctor’s office, insurance company or pharmacy waiting for your ADHD medications to be filled?
If so, you, like me, have been trapped in the medication maze.

For years I have listened as clients told me about their challenges to be diagnosed, only to have their hopes dashed when they find themselves trapped in the ADHD medication maze. What is the ADHD medication maze? It is that tangled cycle of trying to get ADHD medications refilled. Prescriptions not relayed to local pharmacies or faxes getting lost to online medication mailing systems. Suspicious looks from pharmacists when picking up medications. Refusals by insurance companies to pay for prescribed medications. The countless dead ends, backtracking, twists and turns of getting a written prescription through the process and have it filled. The ADHD medication maze is a frustrating web where so many people with ADHD find themselves stuck not knowing which way to turn and unfortunately many give up and never get a chance to experience the possible benefits of ADHD medications.

In theory, filling medication prescriptions is supposed to be easy work. In reality, it rarely goes smoothly. Let me tell you about my own recent experience with trying to get my medications filled. I know many of you will relate.

I called to make an appointment and a month later got in to see my doctor who, after a 25-minute wait and a 10-minute appointment, prescribed me my medications. As I left the clinic, I was told a 14-day short-term prescription would be called to my local pharmacy and an email/fax would be sent to Express Scripts, my mail-order pharmacy. Okey dokey.

Not so bad. Except (you saw this coming, didn’t you?) a plan is only as good as its execution.

The following day my local pharmacy auto responder called (nice feature by the way) to let me know my short-term interim medications were ready to be picked up. I was pleasantly relieved and somewhat surprised it had been that uncomplicated. Easy peazy, I thought. I will pick them up on my way to the airport and just to be sure, allow 15 minutes extra.

You see where this is going, right?

I arrived at the pharmacy with plenty of time, trying to have faith and confidence in the system… after all they had confirmed my prescription was ready for pick up, right? I waited patiently in line for the two people before me to pick up their prescriptions and have a pharmacy consult… do dee do… no worries, plenty of time.

My turn. I stepped up, gave the pharmacist my name and they turned around to reach for my prescription. The pharmacist placed two bags on the counter, rang me up… my cost was under $10 dollars… Yay! Woo Hoo… happy dance. I even scolded myself for doubting all would work out.

And then…

Wait a minute. I had three prescriptions. “Uh hello Mr. Pharmacy Man, I’m supposed to have three medications filled today… there are only two.”

At this point I was still hopeful… wanting to trust in this “fill a pill system” and then I heard those fated words… “The doctor reordered three medications, but the XYZase is not covered by your insurance until the first of next month.”

Wait what?

And then, in a nanosecond, my stomach dropped, my pulse quickened and I began to see red. I was frustrated by the whole system. Frustrated because I trusted everyone to do their job. Angry with the realization that so many people get stuck in this medication maze with little support or map to find their way out…

Side note: I’ll admit it… I have a real problem with the way medications are dispensed in this country. It’s a crazy system, full of twists and turns we are expected to navigate in order to get prescriptions filled. It’s complicated by monetarily motivated insurance companies who decide what medical care I receive and what I don’t. Last time I checked, insurance companies do not have a medical license; they don’t have the training to decide whether I continue on a medication or not. My doctor with the advanced M.D. degree should be the one to decide medically what is in the best interest of my health.

So where was I… oh yes, standing at the pick-up counter at the pharmacy…

Mustering my courage and trying very hard not to be rude, I told the pharmacist that “the insurance company did not get to decide my medical care, my doctor did and I would pay for that prescription out of my own pocket if needed… thank you.” Then, I was asked to step out of the line and told my prescription would be filled as soon as possible.

So I waited… I don’t mind waiting… after all I had allowed an extra 15 minutes just in case. So I waited while the pharmacist filled other prescriptions, answered three phone calls… and a half hour later and 8 people less in line, the pharmacy assistant grabbed the coveted white bag, looked at me and said “it’s ready.”

Not trusting myself to say a word, fuming with the needless half hour wait, the senselessness of our insurance companies dictating our medical care and the realization of so many other people going through similar experiences… I paid the $25 for my medication and left.

Two weeks later, my interim medication bottles were almost empty, but my Express script online mail prescriptions were scheduled to arrive. (Insert laugh track.)

Yep… you guessed it… no white plastic bag with jingling pill bottles had yet graced my mailbox. I was a day away from my medications running out a second time that month.

Curses… here we go again! Who knew what had happened this time? So once again I was on the phone calling my mail-order pharmacy to see if they had received the refill order from my doc… nope they hadn’t received it. I called the doctor’s office again… “oops”… they had emailed my local pharmacy the short-term refill (we all know how that went), but “sorry” the email/fax with the prescription to my mail-order pharmacy hadn’t been sent. Do I need them to do it now?

People! Work with me here! I’m doing all I can… I need you to follow through. Who in their right mind would ever go through this craziness over and over again if their medication wasn’t necessary?

The fact is I know so many of you go through this confusing, exhausting medication maze… month after month, year after year. You bravely and boldly step into the process where you almost need a medical degree yourself to get prescriptions filled. It is ineffective, inefficient, and, unfortunately, it is what we are left to work with.

We cannot escape it… so if you have found yourself in the medication maze, here are some tools to sustain you when you find yourself in this labyrinth:

Remember – you and your doctor get to decide your medical treatment.

Your insurance company refusing to pay for a medication doesn’t mean you can’t pay for it out of your own pocket. I know some medications are costly, however, you might be surprised at how inexpensive some really are. Always ask.

Always double and triple check to make sure emails/faxes/phone calls have been made/sent and received so the delivery of your medications goes as smoothly as possible. Specifically call the pharmacy and your medication-mailing service to confirm they received the prescription orders… if not, call your doctor’s office to make sure they were sent. Don’t assume.

Keep the doctor’s office, pharmacy and mail delivery systems numbers where they can be easily found.

Don’t give up. Remember the benefits of your medication far outweigh the frustration to get them.
The confusing, exhausting medication maze is an all too common problem those with ADHD face. I understand your frustrations and admire your courage to go forth despite the craziness of it all! I’ll bet you have some “medication maze” stories of your own… I’d love to hear them!

Okay, rant over.

3 Causes of Errors in Medical Interpretation

As far as medical interpretation is concerned, one may assume it’s just hearing and interpreting a word into another language that is required, no, the medical field is too technical when it comes to providing interpretation services for doctors and patients because it’s all about dealing with lives and the health of individuals. There is too much care needed when interpreting medical jargons, terminologies into a target language.

The Major Causes of Medical Errors

Let’s see and discuss the major causes of medical errors during the interpretations by the medical interpreters.

Cultural beliefs and tradition; most cultures are too complicated which impacts medical service delivery in such communities, so to deliver medical services in such a community you must ensure you get medical translators and interpreters who can abide by the cultural beliefs and rules in that community because they will be knowing how to deal with their cultural beliefs. Some culture and beliefs do not allow females to conduct speeches in public; when operating a medical clinic in a particular community, you must get to know how their cultural beliefs and norm are such that it becomes easier to provide interpreting services, failure to do that you may make mistakes that may end up causing medical errors in the medical interpretation.

Using family members as translators and interpreters, this is also too dangerous, due to fear of paying for professional medical interpreters or translators, medical services providers may resort to using the patient’s family members or the patient’s caretakers who may be fluent in English to provide medical interpretation, as we all know that being fluent in English is not enough for somebody to be a medical translator of interpreter, because of the technicality of medical terminologies, a caretaker can’t accurately interpret medical terminologies due to lack of knowledge about it, let’s assume you have no knowledge in the medical field, and you are given to interpret, the doctor mentions a statement that you’ve never heard of in life, can you manage to understand that statement and interpret into a layman language?

Use of clinicians who have the basic foreign language skills to communicate with patients and doctors instead of qualified medical interpreters, medical services providers might resort to use of clinician who may have a little knowledge in a particular language understood by the patient. Medical interpretations need fluent native speaking medical interpreters and translators of the respective language so as to be accurate, but because a clinician who is a Japanese speaker knows some little French is given to act as an interpreter between the doctor and the French-speaking patient, there is no way that interpretation will be free from misinterpretation of some words.

Areas where medical errors may occur

Medical errors are always common in medical areas like;

• Admission forms
• Patient discharge reports
• Medical reconciliation
• Emergency department visits and surgical care

Possible ways to avoid medical errors in medical interpretation

To avoid medical errors, medical service providers should focus on strengthening professional medical interpretation services, doctors and patients should be able to communicate and understand each other, they should also provide already translated materials in several foreign languages for the targeted users, cultural awareness and advocacy, improving medical staff training and etc.

The use of the patient’s specific identity, this will help to ensure that the medical interpreter is given the right medical information for the respective patient for interpretation. If any mistake happens that different information about the medical prescriptions is interpreted for a different patient, medical errors have to occur; hence the medical history of the patient bearing the name of the patient, admission date, is necessary since it includes the medicine prescribed for the patient.

Avoiding medical errors in the interpretation process is partly the role of the patient, a patient is supposed to present all the previous medical reports, including all the drugs that were used, this can help the doctor to know what next step to opted if a particular medicine didn’t work, otherwise the doctor may give back the same medication prescription which during the process of interpretation, processed in exact format and meaning. In addition to that a patient should also be careful and observant to know which drugs can problems to his/her health. This basically letting the informed about the medicines that the patient is allergic to because, during the interpretation process, the interpreter’s work is to speak what the doctor mentions.

Medical errors can be avoided if the doctor’s prescriptions to the patient can clearly be understood by the interpreter, hence the interpreter should be sharp, attentive and a good listener when the doctor is talking to the patient, this can make the interpretation accurate and successful with any minor error that may cause problems to the patient’s life.

Looking for a professional medical interpreting agency composed of all sorts of medical interpreters from different backgrounds, cultures, and languages is a better solution

KL Translations Ltd specializes in extending professional and high-quality translation and interpretation services covering over 300 languages for global clients.